Ultra-detailed safety period contraceptive strategy
Women of normal childbearing age have menstruation once a month. From the beginning of this menstrual cramp to the first day of the next menstrual cramp, it is called a menstrual cycle. For example, in terms of contraception, women's menstrual cycle can be divided into menstrual period, ovulation period and safety period. Rhythm period contraception is a contraceptive method that stops sexual life during ovulation. This is a traditional contraceptive method, and it was one of the commonly used contraceptive methods at home and abroad before the advent of contraceptive pills and intrauterine devices.
Women's ovulation date is generally about 14 days before the next menstrual cramps. After the egg is discharged from the ovary, it can survive in the fallopian tube for 1-2 days to wait for fertilization; the sperm of a man can maintain the fertilization ability in the reproductive tract of a woman for 2-3 days, so it is easy to conceive during sexual intercourse in the days before and after the discharge of the egg . To be on the safe side, we call the 5 days before and 4 days after the ovulation day, together with the ovulation day, a total of 10 days as the ovulation period. Because in oviposit period, sexual intercourse becomes pregnant easily, so oviposit period is called again get pregnancy or crisis easily.
The safe ovulation period is divided into the safe ovulation period before and after the safe ovulation period. The period from the day when menstruation is clean to the day before the beginning of conception is the period before conception. From the first day after the end of ovulation period to the day before the next menstrual cramps is the safe period after ovulation. The safe period after ovulation is safer than the safe period before ovulation. This is because some women are sometimes affected by environmental changes and mood swings to advance ovulation, so that the safe period before ovulation will be shortened, and they do not know it. The safe period is not so safe. The chance that the ovary will ovulate twice in a menstrual cycle is very small, that is, the second ovulation will not occur during the period from ovulation to the next menstrual cramp. Therefore, the safe period after ovulation is relatively safe.
The key to using rhythm contraception is to determine the woman's ovulation date. When the ovaries are ovulating, there is generally no special feeling. Although some women may have symptoms such as lower abdominal pain, backache, breast swelling and mood changes, these phenomena are not specific symptoms of ovulation, so they cannot be used as evidence of ovulation. Menstruation and ovulation are cyclical changes, and there is a close relationship between the two. If you master the changing rules of the two, you can use indirect methods to determine the ovulation date.
There are many ways to determine the date of ovulation, and the methods that women can master by themselves include: calculating according to the menstrual cycle, measuring basal body temperature, and observing cervical mucus secretion.
According to the menstrual cycle to calculate the ovulation period The method of calculating the ovulation period according to the menstrual cycle is also called the calendar method. Both menstruation and ovulation are subject to cyclical changes under the influence of endocrine hormones from the pituitary gland and ovary. The length of the cycle of the two is the same, with one cycle per month, and ovulation occurs in the middle of two menstruations. Women's menstrual cycles can be long or short, but the interval between the ovulation day and the start of the next menstrual period is relatively fixed, generally around 14 days. According to this relationship between ovulation and menstruation, the ovulation period can be calculated according to the menstrual cycle.
The calculation method is to calculate from the first day of the next menstrual cramps, and count down 14 days or minus 14 days to be the ovulation day, and the ovulation day and the 5 days before and 4 days after it are added together to be called the ovulation period. This is the theoretical basis of the rhythm contraceptive method.
For example, a woman's menstrual cycle is 28 days, the first day of menstrual cramps is on December 2,
Then the next menstrual cramps will be on December 30 (plus 28 days from December 2), and then from December 30
day minus 14 days, then December 16 is the ovulation day. The ovulation day and its 5 days before and 4 days after, that is, December 11-20 is the ovulation period.
Except for menstrual period and ovulation period, the rest of the time is safe period. Sexual intercourse in the safe period does not need to use any contraceptive drugs and contraceptives.
To use this method to calculate the ovulation period, you must first know the length of the menstrual cycle before you can calculate the start date of the next menstrual cramps and the ovulation period, so it can only be applied to women who have always had normal menstrual cycles. For women with irregular menstrual cycles, it is impossible to calculate the date of the next menstrual cramps. Therefore, it is impossible to calculate the ovulation day and ovulation period.
It is easy to fail to use the calendar method for contraception. Because some women sometimes delay or advance ovulation due to health conditions, environmental changes and emotional fluctuations, so the ovulation period calculated according to the menstrual cycle is not accurate enough.
According to foreign statistics, the failure rate of using the calendar method for contraception is as high as 14.4%-47%. Therefore, this method is only suitable for people who have normal menstrual cycles, live together for a long time, and can correctly grasp and calculate the safety period. It is unreliable to use this method for women with irregular menstrual cycles, couples visiting relatives, and women whose living environment has changed.
Determination of ovulation period by means of basal body temperature measurement Basal body temperature refers to the body temperature measured before the human body wakes up after a long sleep and has not performed any activities. The basal body temperature of normal women of childbearing age changes periodically like the menstrual cycle. This temperature change is associated with ovulation. Under normal circumstances, a woman's basal body temperature is low before ovulation and rises after ovulation. This is because the corpus luteum formed after ovulation and more progesterone secreted by the ovary stimulate the thermoregulatory center of the hypothalamus, resulting in an increase in basal body temperature, which continues until the next menstrual cramp begins to drop. The basal body temperature of the next menstrual cycle repeats the above-mentioned changes.
Record the basal body temperature measured every day on a body temperature record sheet and connect it into a curve. It can be seen that the body temperature in the first half of menstruation is low, and the body temperature rises in the second half of menstruation. This kind of body temperature curve is called double. The phase body temperature curve indicates that the ovaries are ovulating, and ovulation generally occurs before the body temperature rises or during the process of rising from low to high. Some people think that the lowest point before the body temperature rises is the ovulation day, but most of them do not exist, and only about 20% of women have this performance. The fertile period is within 3 days of the basal body temperature rising, and the "safety period after ovulation" is from the 4th day until the next menstrual cramps.
The basal body temperature measurement method can only indicate that ovulation has occurred, but cannot predict when ovulation will occur, so it can only determine the safe period after ovulation, not the safe period before ovulation. If you can cooperate with the calendar method and cervical mucus observation method, you can solve this problem.
In most cases, the basal body temperature measurement method is very reliable for judging the safe period after ovulation, but sometimes the body temperature curve is irregular, so the exact time of ovulation cannot be determined. In this case, the safe period cannot be used for contraception.
How to measure basal body temperature correctly? A person's body temperature fluctuates under the influence of the external environment and the internal activities of the body. In order to eliminate these external and internal influences, the body temperature before getting up at 6-7 o'clock in the morning is often used to measure the body temperature. body temperature as basal body temperature. Basal body temperature is the lowest body temperature of the human body throughout the day and night.
Although the method of measuring basal body temperature is simple, it is strict and requires long-term persistence. Before measuring, prepare a thermometer and a record sheet for recording basal body temperature (if there is no such record sheet, a small graph paper can also be used instead). From the menstrual period, before getting up in the morning every day, do not speak or do anything. In the case of any activity, put the thermometer in the mouth for 5 minutes, and then record the measured temperature on the temperature record sheet.
In order to improve the accuracy of measuring basal body temperature, you should shake the mercury column on the thermometer below 35°C before going to bed every night, and put it on the bedside table or beside the pillow, so that it is readily available when you use it, and minimize activities. If you get up and take a thermometer, your basal body temperature will rise, making the temperature value of this day meaningless. For women who work mid-shift or night shifts, the time to measure basal body temperature is when they first wake up after sleeping for 4-6 hours each time.
Basal body temperature generally requires continuous measurement of more than 3 menstrual cycles to explain the problem. If the menstrual cycle is regular, after measuring the basal body temperature of several menstrual cycles, you basically know your ovulation date.
In order to reduce troubles, you can choose to start testing your body temperature 3-4 days before ovulation, and continue testing for 3-4 days after the temperature rises. That is to say, you only need to measure the basal body temperature during the ovulation period for contraception needs.
How to correctly record the basal body temperature Correctly record the measured basal body temperature on the temperature record sheet, which can reflect the function of the ovary. If it is not recorded correctly, it loses its meaning. The following is a basal body temperature curve of normal women of childbearing age in a menstrual cycle. As can be seen from the figure, the body temperature in the first half is low, and the body temperature in the second half is elevated, showing a typical biphasic body temperature curve. This body temperature curve indicates that the ovary has ovulation function, and the junction of high and low body temperature curves is the ovulation date of the ovary. The vertical axis coordinates in the figure represent the degrees of body temperature, and each cell is 0.1°C.
The coordinates on the horizontal axis represent the date and the day of the menstrual cycle, and each cell is 1 day. From the first day of menstrual cramps, draw the body temperature measured every day with small dots in the grid of the corresponding temperature record sheet, until the day before the next menstrual cramps, and finally draw each small dot with a straight line Connected in sequence, it becomes the basal body temperature curve of a menstrual cycle.
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